This is Belgian law. The exceptions in the Belgian copyright law are only valid for use of works in Belgium (whether or not the author is Belgian or not is not relevant, as is the country the work is published in).
What is protected?
Works protected by copyright:
A Creative Commons licence is an open licence. These kinds of licences allow certain, globally recognised, standardised re-use of copyrighted material. It is a so called upfront licence. You don't have to ask for permission to access, share or use a protected work, the permission is granted automatically. ...
You paraphrase when you explain another author’s idea(s) in your own words, often with added context.
Extract the gist. For example, one of the main arguments in Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own (1929) is: women have the right to education.
When you paraphrase this, you might write ...
Having your publication retracted is something most authors would like to avoid. There are many different reasons why a publication can be retracted, such as (but not restricted to):
Plagiarism of data, images, and/or authorship
Errors in data, image, analyses, ...
Falsification/fabrication of data, results, ...