Tag: refer

APA: how to make a reference list

When you refer to someone else's work in your paper, you need to include that source in the reference list. A reference list only contains sources that were cited or referred to in your paper. Background readings don't belong in your reference list (but they can go in your …

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APA: how to refer within a text

The way you refer to a source in your paper is the same for physical and online sources. You need to refer to a source when you cite someone, or when you paraphrase their ideas, data, theory, ... Below you can find concrete examples that show you how to do …

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Citing: how to

The information below has been translated from "Citeer" on Studentenportaal (Dutch).


When you copy literal phrasings of another author (or your own, previous work), you're citing another text. Some quick guidelines:

  • Always use quotation marks: "..."
  • Refer to the source immediately after the citation
  • If you use a …
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EndNote: adding information to a set of references

It is possible to add the same (filled out) field to multiple references at the same time. This is a handy feature when you want to add the name of database your references come from or if you want to add tags like "read," "to read," etc.

Before you do …

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EndNote: cite while you write

Advantages of citing while you write

  • You don't forget to cite sources.
  • You put the footnotes in the right places.
  • You save time looking for the right source after writing your article.
  • You can automatically update references.
  • You can adjust reference styles easily.


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EndNote: creating a library


1. Open EndNote via Athena 

If you've never used Athena on this device before, install the Citrix client: https://helpdesk.ugent.be/athena/en/ica.php 


2. Click in EndNote on File > New




3. Save the library on your H:Drive, preferably in a separate folder

An .enl file and a …

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Endnote: find and remove duplicates

You can have duplicate references all removed in one click or one by one manually.

Manually remove duplicates

You can find duplicates of references when you click Library > Find Duplicates. You will get a pop-up where you can compare possible duplicates. If there are fields that differ, they will …

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EndNote: how do you share your library?

You can share (parts of) your EndNote desktop library with up to 99 colleagues or peers.

Back up your library Make an online EndNote account
  • Make an online EndNote account by registering here
  • Use your UGent e-mail account so EndNote recognises …
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EndNote: how to add and delete references

Once you have uploaded all your references into your EndNote library, you can delete duplicate references and add references manually. You can also edit them manually or automatically.


Add references

Read this tip to learn about importing references from databases.

Add a reference manually:

  • Open Athena and EndNote.
  • Click …
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EndNote: how to create a group?

You can create groups in EndNote to structure your citations. There are three different groups:

  • a Group: you can add citations manually
  • a Smart Group: citations are added automatically
  • a Group Set: a cluster of (Smart) Groups



If you want to create a group to which you can …

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EndNote: importing references from Web of Science

You can import up to 1.000 references at the same time from Web of Science into your EndNote library.

To do this, enter your search query > click "Export" > click "EndNote desktop"


You will see a pop-up where you can enter the amount of references you want to …

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EndNote: personalising your reference fields

You can personalise the fields in EndNote in two different ways.

Reference types

You can choose which reference type is your preferred default, e.g: Journal Article. You can also choose which fields a certain reference type needs.

  • Open EndNote via Athena
  • Click Edit > Preferences, click on the tab "Reference …
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EndNote: what is a Traveling Library?

"Traveling Library" refers to the citations that are embedded in a Word document. You can:

  • Send the Traveling Library to your publisher, alongside your manuscript
  • Export the Traveling Library from a Word document of a colleague
Export a Traveling Library
  • Go to Word via Athena
  • Open your paper either via …
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EndNote: what is it?

EndNote is software supporting:

  • information management: collect information in one place, group in a relevant structure, comment, add keywords and much more;
  • referencing, footnotes and a bibliography: add references in a text, using the correct reference style ("output style"), make or change reference styles, set up bibliographic lists.

Using reference …

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EndNote: what is your library's capacity?

Ghent University has a license for EndNote desktop and has access to Web of Science.


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Mendeley: how to add and edit references

There are two ways to add references to Mendeley. One method involves adding references in bulk, via databases like Web of Science or PubMed. This is called importing references. The other method is to manually add a reference, for instance if it's a print book, a presentation, …

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Mendeley: how to add PDFs to references

In the free Mendeley version, you can add PDFs to references manually. Here's how to do this:

  • Download a PDF of the article.
  • Open Mendeley Desktop.
  • Import the reference into your Mendeley library. OR Find and select the reference in your library.
  • In the lefthand column, click the '+' next …
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Mendeley: how to cite while you write

There are many advantages to citing while you're writing (as opposed to adding all the references after you've finished your paper).

  • You'll be less likely to forget to cite sources (so a lower chance to accidentally plagiarise).
  • You'll remember where to put the sources.
  • It's also easier to find the …
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Mendeley: how to delete duplicate references

You can easily delete duplicate references in Mendeley:

  • Open Mendeley Desktop.
  • Click 'Tools' > 'Check for duplicates'.
  • You can now delete the duplicate references one by one by clicking the trash icon next to the duplicate reference.


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Mendeley: how to export your library

A switch to a different kind of reference management software is one of several possible reasons to export your references. When you export your references, you create a small file that you can import again in another type of software. The free Mendeley Desktop version only allows you to …

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Mendeley: how to import references

Importing references into your library means you can save them for future research, to later edit or share them, or to cite them in a paper.

Web of Science
  • Open a browser via Athena or with a VPN-connection.
  • Go to Web of Science and search for the reference(s) you want …
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Mendeley: how to organise your library

In Mendeley, you can organise your references in Collections with several sublevels. You can also create Groups, which are collections of references you intend to share with other researchers.


To create Collections:

  • Open Mendeley Desktop.
  • Click on 'New Collection' in the lefthand column under 'COLLECTIONS'.
  • Name the Collection. …
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Paraphrase: how to

You paraphrase when you explain another author’s idea(s) in your own words, often with added context. Here's how to do it:

  • Extract the gist. For example, one of the main arguments in Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own (1929) is: women have the right to education.
  • When you …
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PID: What is a persistent identifier for publications and datasets?

What is a persistent identifier?

A persistent identifier or PID, such as a DOI or Handle, is a permanent, unique reference to a digital object. Not all identifiers ensure persistency and uniqueness like a PID (see examples below). Moreover, when a PID for a digital object is created, descriptions of …

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Plagiarism detection: use of the tool StrikePlagiarism

Where can you find the tool?

Checking articles or other textual work for plagiarism? Recently, it can be done with a new tool, StrikePlagiarism. The new tool is built into the Ufora learning environment.

Teachers (and their students) are already familiar with it in the context of checking …

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Reference software: reasons to use it

Reference software, also known as bibliographic software, allows you to collect, manage and use information in a systematic way.

The tool supports you in

  • building your own library of references
  • coherently integrating references and citations in a text, according to a certain citation style such as APA, Vancouver, MLA
  • drafting …
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Reference style: what is it?

A reference style defines the rules you have to follow to refer to sources. There are many different reference styles, often linked to a certain field. Also certain scientific journals have their own reference style. Some examples of reference styles are: MLA, APA, Vancouver, IEEE, OSCOLA,...


References have to …

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Referring: how to do it correctly

When you mention (the ideas in) previously published work, you are referring to said work. You can do this by paraphrasing the ideas or findings in other papers, or you can cite them. Correctly referencing your sources is essential in academic writing (bachelor paper, master thesis, PhD dissertation). There are …

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V&A ((Dutch) reference style for law school)

If you are a student or researcher at the faculty of law, you are expected to use the legal references and abbreviations in your (Dutch) publications (thesis, scientific articles). In EndNote you will find this reference style as V&A.

Since EndNote is an American software package, a separate version of …

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Zotero: how do I manage my sources in Zotero?

How can you add or edit sources in Zotero?

Adding sources

Adding sources to your library can be done manually or by using the browser extension you added earlier. In either case, it's best to check what data is stored so you can complete in a timely manner.

Adding sources …    Read more

Zotero: how to cite in Word or LibreOffice

The Zotero client also automatically installs a plugin for your word processor. If you want to cite from your Zotero library, always start Zotero first and then Word so that all plugins load correctly. Depending on the word processor you use, the Zotero plugin looks like a tab at the …

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Zotero: how to install Zotero?

Zotero is a bibliographic software manager. You can compare it to EndNote. The main difference is that it is free and offers a group library option. EndNote, however, has more options for creating your own style. Both are compatible: you can import and export libraries between the two.

Installing the …    Read more