Tag: refer

APA: how to make a reference list

When you refer to someone else's work in your paper, you need to include that source in the reference list. A reference list only contains sources that were cited or referred to in your paper. Background readings do not belong in your reference list (but they can go in …

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APA: how to refer within a text

The way you refer to a source in your paper is the same for physical and online sources. You need to refer to a source when you cite someone, or when you paraphrase their ideas, data, theory, ... Below you can find concrete examples that show you how to do …

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Citation Style V&A (law school)

If you are a student or researcher at the faculty of law, you are expected to use the legal references and abbreviations in your (Dutch) publications (thesis, scientific articles). In EndNote you will find this reference style as V&A.

Since EndNote is an American software package, a separate version of …

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Citing: how to

The information on this page comes from Studentenportaal (Dutch).


When you copy literal phrasings of another author (or your own, previous work), you are citing another text. Some quick guidelines:

  • Always use double quotation marks: "..."
  • Refer to the source of the citation immediately after the citation
  • If …
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Comparison: EndNote and Mendeley

There are so many types of reference software out there that it's sometimes difficult to make an informed decision about which software fits your needs best. In this research tip, we explore two populair options: EndNote (Clarivate) and Mendeley (Elsevier).


What is reference software?

You use reference software to …

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These are all unique identifiers that refer to a specific source. Based on these identifiers, you should be able to find the full and correct bibliographical information.

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Endnote: find and remove duplicates

You can have duplicate references all removed in one click or one by one manually.

Manually remove duplicates You can find duplicates of references when you click Library > Find Duplicates. You will get a pop-up where you can compare possible duplicates. If there are fields that differ, they will …    Read more

EndNote: how can I add and delete references?

Once you have uploaded all your references into your EndNote library, you can delete duplicate references and add references manually. You can also edit them manually or automatically.


Add references

Read this tip to learn about importing references from databases.

Add a reference manually:

  • Open Athena and EndNote.
  • Click …
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EndNote: how can you cite while you write?

Advantages of citing while you write

  • You don't forget to cite sources.
  • You put the footnotes in the right places.
  • You save time looking for the right source after writing your article.
  • You can automatically update references.
  • You can adjust reference styles easily.


Insert a footnote
  • Open Athena.
  • Open …
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EndNote: how do you add information to a set of references?

It is possible to add the same (filled out) field to multiple references at the same time. This is a handy feature when you want to add the name of database your references come from or if you want to add tags like "read," "to read," etc.

Before you do …

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EndNote: how do you share your library?

You can share (parts of) your EndNote desktop library with up to 99 colleagues or peers.

Back up your library Make an online EndNote account
  • Make an online EndNote account by registering here
  • Use your UGent e-mail account so EndNote recognises …
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EndNote: how to create a group?

You can create groups in EndNote to structure your citations. There are three different groups:

  • a Group: you can add citations manually
  • a Smart Group: citations are added automatically
  • a Group Set: a cluster of (Smart) groups



If you want to create a group to which you can …

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EndNote: how to create a library


1. Open EndNote via Athena 


If you've never used Athena on this device before, install the Citrix client: https://helpdesk.ugent.be/athena/en/ica.php 



2. Click in EndNote on File > New



3. Save the library on your H:Drive, preferably in a separate folder

An .enl file and …

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EndNote: how to import multiple references from Web of Science

You can import up to 500 references at the same time from Web of Science into your EndNote library.

To do this, enter your search query > click "Export" > click "EndNote desktop"


You will see a pop-up where you can enter the amount of references you want to …

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EndNote: how to personalise your reference fields

You can personalise the fields in EndNote in two different ways.

Reference types

You can choose which reference type is your preferred default, e.g: Journal Article. You can also choose which fields a certain reference type needs.

  • Open EndNote via Athena
  • Click Edit > Preferences, click on the tab "Reference …
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EndNote: what is a Traveling Library?

"Traveling Library" refers to the citations that are embedded in a Word document. You can:

  • Send the Traveling Library to your publisher, alongside your manuscript
  • Export the Traveling Library from a Word document of a colleague
Export a Traveling Library
  • Go to Word via Athena
  • Open your paper either via …
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EndNote: what is it?

EndNote is software supporting:

  • information management: collect information in one place, group in a relevant structure, comment, add keywords and much more;
  • referencing, footnotes and a bibliography: add references in a text, using the correct reference style ("output style"), make or change reference styles, set up bibliographic lists.

Using reference …

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EndNote: what is your library's capacity?

Ghent University has a license for EndNote desktop and has access to Web of Science.


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Mendeley: how can you add PDFs to references?

There are two ways to add PDFs to references in Mendeley.

  • You can upload them while you are importing the references from a publisher's page.
  • You can add them manually when the reference is already in your library.

The video below demonstrates how you can manually add a reference:

(You …

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Mendeley: how can you cite while you write?

There are many advantages to citing while you are writing (as opposed to adding all the references after you've finished your paper).

  • You will be less likely to forget to cite sources (so a lower chance to accidentally plagiarise).
  • You will remember where to put the sources.
  • It is also …
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Mendeley: how do you add and edit references?

You can either add references in bulk, via databases like Web of Science or PubMed. This is called importing references. The other method is to manually add a reference, for instance if it is a print book, a presentation, or some other document that cannot be found in databases. …

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Mendeley: how do you delete duplicate references?

Duplicate references can clutter up your Mendeley library very quickly. Luckily you can easily find double references and delete them.

The clip below explains how you can do that.

(You might need to log in to your Microsoft Stream account to view the video.)

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Mendeley: how do you export references?

A switch to a different kind of reference management software is one of several possible reasons to export your references. When you export your references, you create a small file that you can import again in another type of software.

The video bellow walks you through the steps.

(You might …

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Mendeley: how do you import references?

Importing references into your library means you can save them for future research, to later edit or share them, or to cite them in a paper.

In this clip, we will show you how you can import references from

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Mendeley: how do you organise your references in your library?

In Mendeley, you can organise your references in a folder system. You can create several sublevels, which can make for an intricate and efficient system. You can also create Groups, which are collections of references you intend to share with other researchers.

The video below explains how you can do …

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Paraphrase: how to

You paraphrase when you explain another author’s idea(s) in your own words, often with added context. Here's how to do it:

  • Extract the gist. For example, one of the main arguments in Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own (1929) is: women have the right to education.
  • When you …
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Plagiarism: what is it?

The UGent Education and Examination Code defines plagiarism as follows: "to commit plagiarism is to present (parts of) a source as original and your own, without adding any acknowledgements."

You can read more about this in the guide about academic writing by the Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, in particular …

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Reference software: reasons to use it

Reference software, also known as bibliographic software, allows you to collect, manage and use information in a systematic way.

The tool supports you in

  • building your own library of references
  • coherently integrating references and citations in a text, according to a certain citation style such as APA, Vancouver, MLA
  • drafting …
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Reference style: what is it?

A reference style defines the rules you have to follow to refer to sources. There are many different reference styles, often linked to a certain field. Also certain scientific journals have their own reference style. Some examples of reference styles are: MLA, APA, Vancouver, IEEE, OSCOLA,...


References have to …

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Referring: how to do it correctly

When you mention (the ideas in) previously published work, you are referring to said work. You can do this by paraphrasing the ideas or findings in other papers, or you can cite them. Correctly referencing your sources is essential in academic writing (bachelor paper, master thesis, PhD dissertation). There are …

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