Throughout your career as a student and/or researcher you will produce a series of reports, papers, publications and other texts, in many cases in fluent English. Tips and tricks to improve your writing in English are collected on the UGent portal.
The faculty of Arts & Philosophy created a …
When you refer to someone else's work in your paper, you need to include that source in the reference list. A reference list only contains sources that were cited or referred to in your paper. Background readings do not belong in your reference list (but they can go in …
The way you refer to a source in your paper is the same for physical and online sources. You need to refer to a source when you cite someone, or when you paraphrase their ideas, data, theory, ... Below you can find concrete examples that show you how to do …
Recognition for a person's effective contribution to a scholarly publication is done primarily through the inclusion, or not, of the names of (individual) contributors on a (more or less) limited list of names associated with that publication.
The place on this list determines in most cases the "importance" of …
- Researchers who contribute significantly to the creation of the publication are added to the authors list. "[…] authorship itself is based on a significant contribution to the design of the research, relevant data collection, or the analysis or interpretation of the results.” (European Code of Conduct for Research …
Authorship is related to the actual contribution someone makes to a scientific publication.
Various stakeholders in science (research institutions, faculties, funders, publishers, journals, etc.) have developed standards to regulate this aspect of scholarly publishing.
Authorship is an important (co-)factor for the academic impact and reputation of individual researchers …
If you are a student or researcher at the faculty of law, you are expected to use the legal references and abbreviations in your (Dutch) publications (thesis, scientific articles). In EndNote you will find this reference style as V&A.
Since EndNote is an American software package, a separate version of …
As the author of a work, you're the copyright holder. Sometimes, however, you transfer your copyright (the economic rights) to a third party, who becomes the copyright holder in turn. If someone wants to reuse (part of) your work, the copyright holder of your work must grant permission for this. …
What is a deposit number (D-nummer)?
A deposit number is assigned by the Royal Library of Belgium. It is the code that a publisher is obliged to include on the front or on the back of a book to enable identification of the book and the publisher.
Therefore, It must …
You can have duplicate references all removed in one click or one by one manually.
Manually remove duplicates
You can find duplicates of references when you click Library > Find Duplicates. You will get a pop-up where you can compare possible duplicates. If there are fields that differ, they will …
EndNote: how can I add and delete references?
Once you have uploaded all your references into your EndNote library, you can delete duplicate references and add references manually. You can also edit them manually or automatically.
Read this tip to learn about importing references from databases.
Add a reference manually:
- Open Athena and EndNote.
- Click …
Advantages of citing while you write
- You don't forget to cite sources.
- You put the footnotes in the right places.
- You save time looking for the right source after writing your article.
- You can automatically update references.
- You can adjust reference styles easily.
Insert a footnote
EndNote: how can you import references?
You can import references into EndNote from many different databases. In the clips below, we explain how to import references from the four most commonly used ones: the library's catalogue, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar.
Web of Science
You can create groups in EndNote to structure your citations. There are three different groups:
- a Group: you can add citations manually
- a Smart Group: citations are added automatically
- a Group Set: a cluster of (Smart) groups
If you want to create a group to which you can …
You can import up to 500 references at the same time from Web of Science into your EndNote library.
To do this, enter your search query > click "Export" > click "EndNote desktop"
You will see a pop-up where you can enter the amount of references you want to …
You can personalise the fields in EndNote in two different ways.
You can choose which reference type is your preferred default, e.g: Journal Article. You can also choose which fields a certain reference type needs.
- Open EndNote via Athena
- Click Edit > Preferences, click on the tab "Reference …
It is essential to researchers to publish in peer-reviewed journals. A peer review means that the quality of the research will be assessed by colleagues (usually before publication). Some monograph publishers also work with peer review, which means that the quality of the books they publish has been assessed by …
LaTeX is a markup language (like HTML). It ensures that your text (article, book, thesis) rolls out of the printer with impeccable layout. Below, you can find some pros and cons of working with LaTeX:
LaTeX might be interesting if..
- You use a lot of scientific formulas or mathematical …
Open Access refers to the practice of making peer-reviewed scholarly research and literature freely available online to anyone interested.
Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose, subject, at most, to requirements that preserve provenance and openness. It does not affect authors' freedom to choose …
ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) provides a persistent identifier that will distinguish a researcher from other researchers throughout their scholarly career. An ORCID is globally unique and will continuously refer to the same researcher. Funders (e.g. NIH, HEFCE, ...) and publishers (e.g.. Elsevier, American Association for the Advancement of …
You paraphrase when you explain another author’s idea(s) in your own words, often with added context. Here's how to do it:
- Extract the gist. For example, one of the main arguments in Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own (1929) is: women have the right to education.
- When you …
The UGent Education and Examination Code defines plagiarism as follows: "to commit plagiarism is to present (parts of) a source as original and your own, without adding any acknowledgements."
You can read more about this in the guide about academic writing by the Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, in particular …
A reference style defines the rules you have to follow to refer to sources. There are many different reference styles, often linked to a certain field. Also certain scientific journals have their own reference style. Some examples of reference styles are: MLA, APA, Vancouver, IEEE, OSCOLA,...
References have to …
These tools will help you find literature on the topic of your choice.
You can find over 4.000.000 references for books, serials, images, theses, and databases in the library catalogue of Ghent University. Many of these can be consulted online, from the comfort of your home.
If you can't …
Do you need to write a text or do you need to find information and you are looking for the right resources? Follow the step-by-step plan below.
Step 1: define your subject
- Narrow down your subject based on the literature you find.
- Explore the subject. You can read a paper …
Retraction Watch is a database that lists retracted (retractions) or corrected (corrections) publications, or publications with an expressions of concern. A blog is connected to the databese, highlighting some of the retracted publications. Retraction Watch started in 2010, which means you will not find older publications in the collection. The …
Before you start writing, having a good sense of what you will be writing is an important first step. Some examples of text types that require different kinds of writing are:
- a paper: you look for the answer to an objective research question through field research or a literature …